Active Isolated Stretching for Runners

by Diane Waye and Alexis Mielke

published with permission by Peak Running Performance May/June 2010 PeakRunningPerformance.com

 

Forty years ago, an athlete named Aaron Mattes was frustrated with continuous injuries and what he saw as ineffective rehabilitative methods.  For a hamstring stretch, he had been taught to rest his foot on a bench and reach for his toes.  That methodology left him sorer and his hamstrings screaming. Sound familiar? Spurred on by the lack of solutions offered by the medical community, Mattes took matters into his own hands. Laying down on his back he experimented with a rope to assist him in a hamstring stretch that did not put his muscles in an eccentric contraction. He discovered that movements against gravity held only for two seconds enhanced elasticity in the tissues without them fighting back.  And so Active Isolated Stretching (AIS): The Mattes Method was conceived.

What it is

Active Isolated Stretching is a myofascial release technique that reaches all muscle groups in the body.  Fifty percent of these muscles are difficult to palpate, such as the deep hip rotators, psoas, iliacus, and the subscapularis, which proves challenging for the usual methodology such as massage.  By studying the origin, insertion, and action of every muscle, Mattes developed over 170 stretches predicated on the alignment of myofascial planes and muscle fibers. [1] Using this technique, we can target areas, which once seemed impossible to reach, bringing in more fresh blood and oxygen.  One of the most notable traits of AIS is that it works with the body’s natural reflexes, creating fast results.  With rhythmic breathing and six to eight ounces of pressure, the muscle is taken beyond its current range of motion.  In a single set of ten, easy, two-second repetitions of AIS, the muscle is often able to increase anywhere from five to more than twenty degrees.  The dramatic increases with Active Isolated Stretching are possible because the antagonist muscle is completely relaxed while the agonist is in a state of contraction.

Why Stretching Is Important

With the repetitive movement of running, the joints get used to a restricted range of motion, and when pushed beyond that range, injuries can result. We tend to use the same muscles in the same way, therefore overusing some, and under utilizing others.  Misconceptions based on the outdated method of holding a stretch for 15 seconds to two minutes have caused some athletes to injure themselves, possibly decreasing their running times.  As a result, they may avoid stretching all together. With further education in proper dynamic stretching, we have the chance to enhance all aspects of running.  An increase in flexibility and elasticity has an impact on agility, speed, and endurance.  With proper stretching, you can run faster, slow the process of fatigue, and have a longer lasting running career.[2] The more elastic our muscles are, the less likely they are to tear.  Gentle stretching clears the body of metabolic wastes and toxins, and prevents lactic acid buildup associated with delayed onset muscle soreness.  Muscles will rejuvenate more quickly with proper stretching and strengthening, because both flexibility and strength keep the joints stabilized.  In illustration, San Diego Padre Mark Loretta, after suffering countless injuries worked with Aaron Mattes and added two, ten-minute AIS sessions to his daily routine.  The result, according to Loretta was increased flexibility and agility, and decreased rates of injury. [3]

Respecting the Myotatic Stretch Reflex

            Active Isolated Stretching is based on respecting the myotatic stretch reflex. This reflex is the body’s defense mechanism to protect itself from being injured, by being over stretched or stretched too quickly.  The myotatic reflex, stored in the muscle spindles, is triggered after two seconds causing the antagonist muscle to contract.  There are three components to the response. Time– duration of muscle lengthening; Force – how hard the muscle is being assisted; and Speed – how quickly the muscle is put into position.   If any of these elements are compromised then injury can, or is likely, to occur.

Time

When the muscle spindles detect lengthening, the Golgi Tendon Organ sends an impulse to the Central Nervous System (CNS) to convey “danger!”[4] The CNS sends a message back saying, “Shut it down.” This takes one and a half to two seconds.  If you ignore the message, the myotatic reflex will cause the muscle to fight back.  Setting off the myotatic reflex can lead to muscle soreness, fatigue, and tissue tearing.  Rather than trying to override the myotatic stretch reflex, AIS employs repetitions of two-second stretches that honor how the body really works.

Force

Muscles respond more quickly to gentle coaxing to increase their flexibility.  The amount of pressure applied to the muscle is important because pushing the muscle too hard will cause it to contract instead of stretch.  According to Mattes’ principles, only six to eight ounces of pressure need be applied in order to reach optimal lengthening. With gentle assistance, either individually or with a therapist, it is possible to increase flexibility by two to three degrees with each repetition.[5]

Speed

Contrary to popular belief, bouncing or jerking movements should be avoided. Movements that are too sudden can set off the stretch reflex, contracting the antagonist muscle.  Please keep in mind there needs to be a relaxation phase between each repetition, allowing the muscle to refill with fresh blood and oxygen.  Disengagement between repetitions allows for fluid exchange and neurological resetting of muscle length.

Timing is assisted with rhythmic breathing. Exhaling into each stretch releases tension and expands the muscles. Moreover, a stretch lasting longer than two seconds becomes ischemic, squeezing the blood out of the muscle and cutting off the oxygen supply through muscle contraction.   Anything held less than one and half to two seconds does not allow for maximum blood and oxygen flow.

Runner-Specific injuries           

Common injuries experienced by runners are ankle sprains, Achilles tendonitis, plantar fasciitis, bunions, Tensor Fascia Latae – Iliotibial band (TFL-ITB) tendinitis, knee problems, shin splints, arthritis – the list goes on. Regular practice of Active Isolated Stretching has been shown to prevent many of these injuries and aid in healing without surgery. Imbalance and lack of flexibility can result in injury. For example, running only on the balls of the feet leads to loss of full range of motion in the calves, therefore making the runner vulnerable to Achilles tendonitis, plantar fasciitis, and heel spurs.  Quadriceps that are too tight compress the meniscus and contribute to condromalacia (wearing away the back of the knee cap).  Mattes has designed stretches for the muscles crossing each joint. The muscles crossing two joints such as the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and the TFL-ITB need special attention, they are the most commonly torn or strained.[6]  There are separate stretches for the distal, proximal, lateral, and medial fibers.  Shin splints, plantar fasciitis, high arches, and Achilles tendon injuries are usually caused by tight calf muscles and weak ankles.  These injuries can be prevented with proper stretching and strengthening.  With AIS, the muscle opposite of the one being stretched is being strengthened at the same time, which creates space in the joints as well as stability. Injuries like stress fractures occur because the feet are weak.  By focusing on the individual muscles in the foot, these injuries can be prevented.  In order to reach the 20 muscles in the foot there are stretches for every joint of every toe, as well as the various angles of the soleus, achilles, gastrocnemius, and muscles surrounding the ankle. A runner suffering from plantar fasciitis was placed in a boot for 4 months with less than optimal results. After two sessions of Active Isolated Stretching and Strengthening treatment, he walked out “boot free.”

 


[1] Mattes, A.L. Active Isolated Stretching: The Mattes Method. Sarasota, FL: Aaron L. Mattes, 2000, p. 3

[2] Stretching USA (official AIS web site): http://www.StretchingUSA.com. October 2009

[3] USA today. Lieber, Jill. USA today.www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/nl/padres/2005-04-12-cover-loretta_x.htmPosted 4/12/2005.

[4] Powers, S.K., Howley, E.T. Exercise Physiology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2007, pp. 163

[5] Benjamin, B., Haggquist, J. “Discovering the Power of Aaron Mattes’ Active Isolated Stretching”

[6] Benjamin, Haggquist. “Discovering the Power of Aaron Mattes’ Active Isolated Stretching”

 

Fascia

            Fascia is part of the mesenchyme tissue, a protective sheath which surrounds every organ and muscle in the body, connecting the skin, tissues, and skeletal structures. The fascia provides homeostasis, nutrition, absorption of water, removal of metabolic wastes, and oxygenation. [1]When soft tissue trauma occurs, scar tissue forms, which then interferes with the alignment of the lateral and longitudinal fascial sheaths (also known as the meridian lines), restricting the flow of energy.  After an injury, such as an ankle sprain, inflammation and scar tissue forms causing adhesions.  AIS works to break down the adhesions and “gluing” of fascial sheathes. This decreases and eliminates the build up of scar tissue and realigns collagen fibers.[2] By giving the body proper movement you are helping the body cure itself.

Scientific Studies

Active Isolated Stretching: The Mattes Method, is being practiced worldwide. It is making gains in the medical field and places like the Quist MD Flexibility, Sports, and Rehabilitation clinic in Washington D.C.  There, Jeffrey Haggquist, D.O., is doing pilot studies to demonstrate that stretches should only be held for two seconds.  Kinesiotherapist, Aaron Mattes is also currently working with the National Institute of Health to design pilot studies to prove AIS’ value to the scientific community.[3]  We are finding that AIS is healing not only for fascia, muscles, and joint range of motion, but for neurological diseases as well. Unlike many other treatments, scientific method involves both the brain and muscles, increasing the quickness and effectiveness of the results.  Due to its neuromuscular re-programming component, AIS can take away symptoms that even to the medical community seem impossible.  Therapists using AIS have seen reverses in serious diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson’s. [4]

Principles of Neuromuscularskeletal (NMSk) Rehabilitation

According to Dr. Haggquist, optimizing performance and full recovery has to follow five basic principles:

1. Address pain or discomfort

2. Restore range of motion at the joint

3. Re-establish the normal neuromuscular pathways reconnecting the brain to the  muscle

4. Strength and conditioning

5. Return to function

AIS fulfills all the first four principles simultaneously and makes the fifth, return to function, possible.

Other forms of rehabilitation and stretching such as Active Release Technique (ART) and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) can facilitate pain relief, but do not satisfy all NMSk principles.  ART, a system involving trigger points, works to relieve muscle tension, but does not address neuromuscular reprogramming. PNF stretching, based on isometrics, tires out the muscle fibers so they are forced to relax, relying on muscle fatigue for lengthening.  The range of motion provided by PNF is increased, however, has a short-term duration and can result in damage of the tissues.  Active Isolated Stretching is able to generate lengthening with elasticity, to more effectively prevent injury, increase range of motion in the joints, and provide optimal function, as well as addressing neuromuscular reprogramming.

Why it lasts

AIS requires that you be active during the stretch.  The Sherrington’s Law of Reciprocal Inhibition states that when the muscle on one side of a joint is contracted, the muscle on the opposite side sends a neurological signal to relax or release.[5]  Traditional stretches such as bending down and touching your toes, or lifting a straight leg up on a bench, are eccentric contractions. In other words, the same muscle that is being stretched has to contract in order to stabilize the body.  A muscle in a state of contraction cannot relax.  Actively engaging the muscles trains them to retain their achieved range of motion. The proprioceptors, or “muscle memory cells,” store the information that occurs during each progression of the movement in a series.  In practices such as massage and static stretching, the movements are passive. They do not require muscle engagement, as a result what was gained can be quickly lost.

When to use it

            AIS can be a sport specific warm up and/or cool down. With other forms of stretching it is necessary to warm up the tissues prior to the stretch itself.   Since AIS requires active engagement of the muscle, the tissues are already being warmed with every movement. Each specific repetition flushes the muscles, tendons and fascia with warm oxygen-rich blood, a proper warm up before any activity. By warming up the tissues throughout their active length before physical activity, AIS reduces the risk of muscle strain or tear. After exercising, AIS reduces muscle soreness through drainage of lymph, flushing out lactic acid.

            AIS should be used immediately after a soft tissue injury.  Contrary to the belief that a soft tissue injury should be immobilized, the sooner the muscle fibers are aligned the quicker the recovery will be.  It is best to treat the injury immediately, before the scar tissue forms and inflammation takes away the joint’s range of motion.

From the many runners we have worked with, we have seen increased stride length, decreased running times, fuller use of the foot, more elasticity, and greater range of motion. AIS allows athletes to optimize their potential and specify their training while using simple stretches.  Runner, John Windle, said “After only three sessions with Diane Waye my stride lengthened so my running speed increased by over a minute a mile and I felt less tired and sore afterwards, even after a 10.7 mile race over hills at altitude in Tahoe.”

AIS can be performed in either a clinic or home setting.  It can be practiced with or without the help of a therapist. It is practical. It is based on sound scientific principles. It can be learned from an AIS therapist, or the Mattes book. Even daily 10 minutes sessions can make a difference, preventing injury, allowing for performance enhancement, as well as general health and flexibility.  As DaVinci once said, “Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication.”  This simple technique will change the way body responds.

 

Diane Waye is the Director of Therapy and Education at Stretching by the Bay, San Francisco’s Active Isolated Stretching & Strengthening clinic .  Diane is the Leading West Coast Instructor of A.I.S. for professional education, and continues her private practice to the world’s finest athletes (such as Olympic Runner Magdalena Lewy), and others seeking performance optimization and/or pain relief.  Diane has been utilizing Mattes’ cutting edge discoveries in kinesiology since personally studying with the AIS creator in 1997, and continues to work closely with Mattes to expand the accessibility of AIS. Diane assists athletes in meeting their goals of minimizing injury and maximizing performance with the highest standard of care. You can find her at diane@StretchingbytheBay.com or            415 407-3874      .

 

Alexis Mielke currently works at Stretching by Bay with Diane Waye in San Francisco and Orange County, California.  She graduated from University of San Francisco with a B.S. in Exercise and Sport Science. After playing Division I soccer, she has a particular interest in the new and improved rehab processes and performance enhancement techniques.  She can be reached at Alexis@stretchingbythebay.com

 


[1] Anatomy and Physiology, Steen, Edwin, Ashley Montagu, Vol 1 1959, p. 104.

[2] Pg. 13 of “AIS : the mattes method”

[3] “what I learned this week” July 30, 2009http://www.backtolifehealingarts.com/index.php/media/press

[4] Benjamin and Haggquist, “Discovering the Power of Aaron Mattes’ Active Isolated Stretching”

[5] Rasch, Philip J, Roger K. Burke, 6th edition, Kinesiology and Applied Anatomy, p.63

 

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